Indonesia’s Constitutional Court has rejected a petition to criminalize consensual sex outside of marriage.
The petition was filed by a group of conservative academics, who argued that provisions in the criminal code on adultery should extend to sex involving unmarried people.
The petitioners also wanted sex between people of the same sex to be outlawed.
Five judges of the nine-judge panel rejected the petition.
The judges who rejected the petition argued that it was not in line with civil liberties afforded by the constitution.
They also said the court had no jurisdiction to change the criminal code.
“The fact that the legal provisions are incomplete does not make it unconstitutional,” the judges said in their ruling, adding that the petitioners should instead propose changes to lawmakers.
Rights groups had voiced fears that a ruling in favour of the petition would threaten personal freedoms.
Pre-marital and homosexual sex is not illegal in Indonesia, except in autonomous Aceh province where a version of Islamic law, or sharia, is in force.
“The judicial review brought by the applicants is an attempt to undermine human rights protection in Indonesia,” said the Community Legal Aid Institute, a non-governmental organization, in a statement.
“We hope that in the future the Constitutional Court can maintain its role as a negative legislator and will not bow to pressure from various groups that act in the name of religious morality,” it said.
Indonesia is the world’s largest Muslim-majority country, where many see sex outside of marriage as taboo.
The speaker of Indonesia’s parliament has evaded an attempt by the country’s anti-corruption commission to arrest him as a suspect in a huge graft case, the commission said.
The Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) has accused House of Representatives speaker Setya Novanto of corruption in a 440-million-dollar project to make electronic ID cards during the previous government.
Investigators came to Novanto’s house late Wednesday with an arrest warrant but he was nowhere to be found, said KPK spokesman Febri Diansyah.
“We’re still looking for him, but we don’t know where he is,” Diansyah said.
Novanto’s lawyer, Fredrich Yunadi, said his wife did not know where he was.
“The family is very worried but there’s nothing we can do,” he said.
Losses to the state as a result of corruption in the project are estimated at 2.3 trillion rupiah (172 million dollars), according to the commission.
Novanto is also the chairman of the Golkar Party, a member of the ruling coalition, and an ally of President Joko Widodo.
KPK first named Novanto a suspect in the case in August but a court ruled there was insufficient initial evidence to justify the step in a pre-trial decision.
Last week, the commission again formally named him a suspect.
A wealthy businessman himself, Novanto met US President Donald Trump in September 2015, while the latter was campaigning for the presidency, to discuss investment in Indonesia.
After Trump came to power, President Joko tasked Novanto with establishing a rapport with the new US administration.
Novanto has denied any wrongdoing.
Two officials at the Home Affairs Ministry have been sentenced to seven and five years in prison in the case, while a businessman is also on trial.
More than 30 members of parliament from the 2004-09 period, plus a former Home Affairs minister, have been implicated in the case.
In April, a top investigator for the anti-corruption commission investigating the case, Novel Baswedan, had acid thrown in his face by two attackers.
He is still being treated in a Singapore hospital. Nobody has yet been arrested for the crime.
Performing in the scorching sun wearing long-sleeved shirts and Muslim headscarves, members of the all-female Indonesian alternative metal band Voice of Baceprot were unfazed by the stifling heat.
“Are you ready? You guys are looking good!” band frontwoman Firdda Kurnia shouted to a crowd of mostly teenagers gathered in front of a shopping mall in Garut district, West Java province, before launching into her opening guitar riff.
Guitarist and singer Firdda, drummer Euis Siti Aisyah and bassist Widi Rahmawati – fresh-faced high school girls who make up the Voice of Baceprot, or VoB – say they want to inspire fellow teenagers and smash stereotypes held by many in the West about covered Muslim women.
“We want to show that girls who wear hijab aren’t oppressed,” 17-year-old Firdda said after the band finished playing.
“We want to show that even though we play metal, we are not abandoning our identity and obligations as Muslims,” said Firdda.
All-female bands are nothing new in Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim-majority country, but they usually dress like their Western counterparts.
Dara Puspita, a pioneering three-piece all-female rock band in the 1960s, was under pressure from then-president Sukarno, who saw Western music as a bad influence.
Indonesia has always been home to a thriving metal subculture, said cultural observer Hikmat Darmawan, noting that President Joko Widodo is an avid heavy metal fan.
“Rock music was an outlet for young Indonesians’ rebellion against the country’s past autocratic regimes,” he said, referring to the rules of former presidents Sukarno and Suharto.
Born to devout Muslim families and growing up poor in Garut, a small town in largely conservative West Java province about a four-hour drive from Jakarta, the VoB girls never dreamed of becoming musicians and did not learn to play musical instruments until they were teenagers.
They were introduced to the guitar and drums a few years ago as part of an extracurricular programme while they were attending an Islamic junior high school, or madrassa.
“We started out playing an acoustic guitar and broken drums from the school’s marching band,” said Euis, the drummer.
“There were no electronic instruments,” she added. “The school then bought a set of drums but I cried because I couldn’t use it.”
There was initial resistance to their choice of musical genre from family, teachers and neighbours, whose conservative views associated rock music with moral decadence, drugs and promiscuity.
“They would say that that metal is not for Muslim girls and that it’s Satanic music,” Firdda said.
“Our neighbours frowned when they saw us carrying the guitars. But that didn’t bother us because we enjoy what we do,” she said.
But attitudes are changing, with their parents no longer opposed to their career choice.
“They are now saying they are proud of us,” Firdda said.
The band, whose name means “noisy,” sings about social and environmental issues, such as in their single “The Enemy of the Earth is You,” and refrains from peppering their songs with religious messages.
“We are a band whose members are Muslims, but we are not an Islamic metal band,” Firdda said.
Firdda described the band’s genre as “nu metal” and said that its music is influenced by an eclectic mix of artists including Dream Theater, Lamb of God, Linkin Park, Red Hot Chili Peppers and Eminem.
The band has been invited to play on local television and is attracting a legion of fans in Indonesia and beyond, Firdda said.
After the band’s recent performance in Garut, local fans mobbed the girls behind the stage and asked to take selfies with them.
“We have fans in places across the country and overseas, including in Israel,” said Firdda, with a laugh.
The trio has won praise not only for breaking the mould of a typical metal band but also for their musical prowess.
“They have good skills and the fact that they wear hijab is a plus,” said Ade Nasruddin, a metal fan who attended the band’s live performance in Garut.
“The bass player is especially very good,” he said.
The band has also won plaudits from overseas viewers.
“There is nothing as truly cool, punk rock and rebellious, as a girl in a hijab with a guitar and microphone challenging the authority. Deep respect from a thinking American,” a YouTube user named Patrick Hayes wrote on one of the band’s videos.
The band is set to release an independent album later this year, to be distributed online. Some of the songs will be in English.
“We want people outside Indonesia to listen to our music. We have never been abroad but maybe someday we can perform overseas,” Firdda said.
Indonesian police have arrested three people they say were part of a syndicate that spread fake news and other misinformation online for money.
The group, called Saracen, posted false news, provocative memes and other forms of content on social media to suit the agenda of their paymasters, said national police spokesman Awi Setiyono.
The alleged syndicate involved about 800,000 social media accounts and offered its services to individuals for payments, he said, adding that police were trying to find out who their clients were.
“These people were engaged in hate speech,” the Setiyono said. “People must not fall for memes intended to create ethnic, religious and racial divisions.”
Ethnic and religious tensions rose earlier this year in the run-up to the Jakarta gubernatorial election pitting then-incumbent Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, a Christian of Chinese descent, and former education minister Anies Baswedan.
While campaigning, Basuki was charged with blasphemy after hundreds of thousands of Muslims rallied to demand he be prosecuted over remarks that his opponents misused a verse from the Koran to prevent him from winning another term.
He lost an April election run-off to Anies, who was backed by Muslim conservatives, despite winning the most vote in the first round vote, and was subsequently sentenced to two years in prison for blasphemy.