Category: Energy

Indonesia set up special travel corridor to facilitate historic $22.9bn trade deal with UAE

Indonesia and the UAE on Thursday announced the creation of a temporary travel corridor to allow business and diplomatic trips to take place in relation to one of the southeast Asian country’s biggest investment deals.

The agreement was reached by Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs Retno Marsudi and her Emirati counterpart, Abdullah bin Zayed Al-Nahyan, on Wednesday evening.

During a visit to Abu Dhabi in January, Indonesian President Joko Widodo secured energy, infrastructure, and agriculture investments worth $22.9 billion in what has officially been described as the biggest trade deal in the country’s history.

“The safe travel corridor arrangement between Indonesia and the UAE is now in effect,” Marsudi said during a virtual press briefing. The minister added that travel would be allowed for essential businesspeople, government officials, and diplomats, in accordance with strict pre-departure and post-arrival health protocols to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

The UAE Ambassador to Indonesia, Abdullah Salem Obeid Al-Dhaheri, who also attended the media conference, said the Indonesian and UAE governments had felt it an urgent priority to provide an avenue for cooperation, despite the COVID-19 pandemic.

“In this regard, the two countries agreed to establish a bilateral temporary agreement to facilitate the easing of travel for business, economy, as well as diplomatic and official purposes,” he added.

Al-Dhaheri pointed out that the arrangement would not undermine mandatory public health and quarantine protocols related to the COVID-19 situation in both countries. He noted that through regular assessment and consultation with relevant stakeholders, the travel corridor might later be expanded to include tourists.

Achmad Rizal Purnama, director of Middle East affairs at Indonesia’s foreign ministry, said the travel corridor arrangement, a first for both countries, reflected the growing “trust and confidence” that had developed between the two nations following Widodo’s Abu Dhabi trip and Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al-Nahyan’s visit to Indonesia in July 2019.

The agreement would exempt travelers from the mandatory two-week quarantine, Purnama said, but they would be required to have a negative result from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for COVID-19 taken within 72 hours before departure.

“The arrangement is about ensuring that the travelers are in good health. We don’t want this pandemic to impede us in following up on the various agreements reached during the January visit and let the projects stall, which we hope would spur our economic recovery efforts,” he said.

The UAE had committed to investing $6.8 billion out of the total agreed spending package into Indonesia’s energy, logistics, port construction, mining, and agriculture sectors.

Widodo’s delegation also secured the Gulf state’s commitment to assist in establishing an Indonesian sovereign wealth fund, into which the UAE, the US International Development Finance Corporation, and Japan’s SoftBank would inject funding.

The fund would be used partly to finance the relocation of Indonesia’s capital from Jakarta to East Kalimantan province on the island of Borneo, which has been estimated will cost $33 billion of which Indonesia has said it could only afford 19 percent.

The story was first published in Arab News

A coal road project could put endangered Sumatran tigers’ habitat in peril

Conservationists on Tuesday slammed a decision by the Indonesian government to allow a mining contractor company to build a road through a restoration forest in South Sumatra.

Critics claim the project could damage the sensitive ecosystem and threaten the critically endangered Sumatran tiger, the only tiger subspecies left in the country after two other subspecies became extinct in Java and Bali.

“This is contradictory to the government’s said commitment to restore forests and rehabilitate the ecosystem, that could serve as the natural habitat for wild species and a top predator such as the Sumatran tiger,” Yoan Dinata, a member of Forum Harimau Kita (Our Tiger Forum), in Jambi, said.

Once completed, the road would cut across the Harapan rainforest, a 98,555-hectare wildlife haven in South Sumatra and Jambi provinces managed by Restorasi Ekosistem Indonesia (REKI) as the concession holder.

The forest is the first ecosystem restoration concession in Indonesia based on a collaboration led by Burung Indonesia, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and BirdLife International.

Dinata said the existing road network built by companies managing various concessions in nearby industrial forests had already put a barrier between conservation areas inhabited by tigers.

Opening the forest for a road project could escalate human-tiger conflicts in Sumatra, he added, as tigers often entered human settlements in search of food as a result of deforestation and habitat loss.

“Forest restoration is also aimed to increase the tiger’s population. If their natural habitat is shrinking, they would not be able to breed, and we would not be able to increase their population.”

There were at least 20 tigers in the Harapan forest based on a 2015 research, according to REKI data. But camera traps installed inside the forest, which represents 20 percent of the remaining lowland forest in Sumatra, have captured tiger sightings over the years.

01_Harimau sumatera, salah satu satwa kunci Hutan Harapan, tertangkap camera trap
A camera trap photo shows a Sumatran tiger was roaming the Harapan forest in Musi Banyuasin, South Sumatra in September 2019. Tigers are among the vulnerable and endangered species that inhabit the forest. Photo: Restorasi Ekosistem Indonesia

Hospita Yulima, REKI’s spokeswoman, told Arab News that the company so far never received formal notification from the Forestry Ministry that they had permitted the coal transport company to build a road that cuts through their concession, allowing the company to use 424 hectares of land in the forest, on which some parts of the coal road project would be constructed.

The designated areas are part of the Asian elephants’ track and the tigers’ home roaming range.

“If this permit is really issued, it is difficult for us to say that the forestry ministry supports the Harapan forest restoration.”

Arab News tried to contact the ministry for confirmation but failed to receive a response in time. Meanwhile, Diki Kurniawan, a director at the Jambi chapter of the Environmental Legal Aid Foundation (YLBHL) said that activists had urged the company to use an existing road network that goes around the forest or has been constructed by other firms in the area.

“They could negotiate with those companies to use the road, instead of opening the forest just to construct their own road,” he said. The forest is also home to an indigenous, semi-nomad community, the Batin Sembilan, who have made the forest their home for centuries.

Although some members of the community have settled in permanent dwellings inside the forest, they still rely on the forest for their livelihood by harvesting non-wood produce such as honey, resin gum, or rattan. Kurniawan said the YLBHL and 36 other civil society organizations that formed a coalition called South Sumatra-Jambi Anti Forest Destruction to reject the plan is mulling over assisting the indigenous tribe – as the party directly impacted by the project – to challenge the ministry’s decision through a legal channel.

“The road project could open access to poachers and illegal logging. We have seen from previous practices that companies that open the forests could not prevent the forest from the devastating impact,” Kurniawan said.

Read the original story in Arab News

Indonesian braces for greater environmental damage as oil slick widens

Indonesian authorities have launched a massive cleanup operation off the coast of Balikpapan, the provincial capital of East Kalimantan, where an oil slick from a ruptured undersea pipeline has sprawled to 20,000 hectares, contaminating mangrove forest and marine life.

Satellite images from state space agency LAPAN showed in just two days since the initial oil slick was detected on Mar. 31, the spill has sprawled to 13,559 hectare on Apr. 2 from 12,987 hectare on the previous day.

According to the Fisheries and Maritime Affairs Ministry, by Apr. 5 the spill has sprawled to 20,000 hectares, Kompas newspaper reported.

“Now it would take months to recover from the environmental damage,” Arifsyah Nasution, a marine campaigner from Greenpeace Indonesia said.

Environmental activists in Balikpapan have team up to collect evidence and assess the environmental damage, which Nasution said the public can later use as a comparison to assessment made by government agencies.

Balikpapan city administration has declared a state of emergency as locals’ livelihoods suffer. The oil spill claimed the lives of five fishermen when it ignited on fire on Mar. 31 and killed at least an Irrawaddy dolphin, a rare and protected species.

State-owned oil company Pertamina, which at first denied the leak was its fault, acknowledged that the spill had come from its undersea pipelines, located 22 to 26 meters below the sea.

“The crude oil leaked from one of the pipelines that was dragged more than 100 meter from its location,” Yudi Nugraha, a spokesman for Pertamina operations in Balikpapan said.

The company said the steel pipelines, which distribute crude oil from the Lawe-Lawe Terminal to its refinery in Balikpapan are 20 years old and that only external forces can dragged them as far as 100 meter.

Greenpeace’s Nasution said the crisis could have been minimized if Pertamina had responded more quickly.

The Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry said the likely culprit is a Panama-flagged coal ship that dropped its anchor in Balikpapan Bay, dragging one of the pipelines and causing it to rupture.

The ministry’s oil and gas director general Djoko Siswanto said ships are not permitted to drop anchor on that part of the bay where the pipelines are installed.

Environmental and Forestry Minister Siti Nurbaya Bakar has dispatched ministry officials to Balikpapan, an oil and mining hub in the island of Borneo, to spearhead the cleanup effort and to assess the adverse impact on the bay’s ecosystem and biodiversity. Pertamina has deployed 15 cleaning vessels.

Siti Nurbaya said the ministry team will measure the length of the coastline impacted by the spill. They found that it has so far polluted 34 hectare mangrove wetlands in Kariangau village and 6,000 mangrove trees in another village.

“We have asked Pertamina to prioritize cleaning the oil slick in waters close to human settlements to get rid of the oil’s nauseating smell and other imminent health hazards,” Siti Nurbaya said.

The team also collected oil booms, or temporary floating barriers, from oil companies operating in the region to contain the oil spill and by late Wednesday, the team has collected up to 70 meter cubic oil slick.

“We are coordinating with the police, which will launch a criminal investigation into the case. The forestry ministry will assist in determining the loss suffered by locals and the compensation for those affected,” Rasio Ridho Sani, forestry ministry’s director general for law enforcement said.

Octavinus, a search and rescue official in Balikpapan said locals began to see oil slick floating on the waters on Mar. 31 midnight and it was sparked on fire before noon, burning two fishing boats.

An operation was immediately dispatched to rescue the fishermen and by Apr. 3,  Octavianus said they found one of the boats completely burned and all bodies of five fishermen killed in the fire.

“A coal barge with 20 crew on board was sailing by but the barge was only slightly damaged and the whole crew is safe,” he said.

The original story was published in Arab News

Indonesia aims to emulate Norway in managing its mineral wealth

After three years leading Indonesia’s largest state-owned bank by assets, former Bank Mandiri chief executive officer Budi Gunadi Sadikin has a new role as special staff to Rini Soewandi, the Minister of State-Owned Enterprises (SOE).

In this role, which he started in late June 2016, Budi is charged with establishing a holding company made out of state-owned mining enterprises to re-do the way the government handles its future stakes in the industry.

Continue reading “Indonesia aims to emulate Norway in managing its mineral wealth”

New Pertamina chief faces one-price fuel policy challenge in a vast archipelago

The newly appointed president director of state-owned energy firm Pertamina, Elia Massa Manik, has a huge task ahead to carry out President Joko Widodo’s one-price fuel policy, in the face of inadequate infrastructure to distribute fuel to the country’s remote areas and far-flung islands in the Indonesian archipelago.

Maryati Abdullah, the national coordinator for PWYP Indonesia, a civil society coalition for energy and extractive industry governance reform, considers the policy is viable if Pertamina could import crude oil at a much more affordable price and refine it in its own refineries.

“They could start by revitalizing its existing, old refineries so they could increase its production output, while also remain committed to developing new ones,” she said.

Unit pengolahan cilacap

Pertamina refinery in Cilacap, Central Java. Photo:

Widodo announced the policy in October 2016 during a visit to Yahukimo, a district near the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea border in the easternmost province of Papua. Due to the location and lack of infrastructure in Papua and the eastern part of Indonesian archipelago, fuel prices can cost up to a dozen time more from the normal price of 6,450 rupiah per liter for petrol and 5,150 rupiah per liter for solar. The policy is expected to cost Pertamina about 800 billion rupiah annually.

Fahmy Radhi, an economic energy analyst from Universitas Gadjah Mada in Yogyakarta agrees that having its own production infrastructure could give Pertamina wider fuel distribution coverage.

“If it has its own refineries, Pertamina won’t have to import up to 650,000 barrel per day. This is a huge amount that the oil and gas rent seekers have been cavorting around,” Fahmy said.

Kurtubi, a lawmaker from the House of Representatives Commission VII which oversees energy and mineral resources said as a company drawn to constitutional obligation about exploitation of the country’s natural resources should benefit the people, there is more that Pertamina has to consider in its operation than merely making a profit.

Article 33 in Indonesia’s 1945 Constitution states that “sectors of production which are important for the country and affect the life of the people shall be controlled by the state and the land, the waters and the natural riches contained therein shall be controlled by the State and exploited to the greatest prosperity of the people.”

“One-price fuel policy is a constitutional mandate. Pertamina could do it as long as the cost is efficient,” Kurtubi, who goes by one name, said.

“The new president director has to be able to operate the company without contradicting the constitution,” he added.

Kurtubi also said that cutting fuel import should be high in Pertamina’s agenda under Manik’s leadership.

“It should develop its own refineries so that Pertamina could produce its own fuel to meet the domestic demands,” Kurtubi said, adding that the existence of a refinery in a certain area could also create multiplier effects that would boost the local economy and open new jobs.

Manik was appointed to head the company during Pertamina’s general shareholders meeting at the State-Owned Enterprises Ministry in Jakarta on March 16, more than a month after then-chief executive Dwi Soetjipto and deputy director Ahmad Bambang were ousted on Feb 3 because of what the government – its majority shareholder – was a leadership problem and a lack of teamwork.

Manik, who was the president director of PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) III, the holding company of 14 state plantations firms since April 2016, is an alumnus of Bandung Institute of Technology and Asean Institute Of Management.

In his first address to Pertamina’s employees, Manik said he would focus on strengthening the company’s human resources and maintaining Pertamina’s improved performance for the past years.

Sudirman Said, the then-energy and mineral resources minister, said in 2015 that Pertamina was able to save 250 billion rupiah per day after ousted CEO Dwi in 2015 disbanded Pertamina Energy Trading Limited (Petral), a Singapore-based Pertamina subsidiary handled crude and fuel oil imports for the state energy company and was notorious for being the oil and gas rent seekers’ den.

“There are many important projects we need to execute to achieve the national energy security goal, therefore it is important to gain trust so that we can adeptly carry out the projects,” Manik said.

PWYP Indonesia had urged the government to select the new president director in a transparent, credible and independent manner, following the Feb 3 ouster of Dwi.

Maryati said the government didn’t say much about the reason they appointed Manik, but given his public track record on improving corporate efficiency, she holds a favorable view that Manik would be efficient in his human resources planning and be able to restructure various executive positions to a more effective appointments.

“We also hope he would not be swayed by certain political interests,” Maryati said.


Electrifying Asean with interconnected energy grid

Vientiane – Four Asean member states are working on a power grid interconnection project between Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore as part of regional efforts to ensure energy security.

Laos deputy minister of energy and mines, Viraponh Viravong said working groups on the first 100 Mw that uses existing facilities are meeting regularly to make this interconnection a reality.

A 2013 report from Jakarta-based Economic Research Institute on Asean and East Asia (ERIA) showed that the estimated possible cumulative benefit range from this project would be approximately US$ 20 billion.

“A memorandum of understanding amongst the four countries is planned to be signed in September in Myanmar during the Asean Energy Ministers meeting,” said Viraponh during a discussion on Asean energy challenge at the 5th ERIA Editors’ Roundtable held earlier this month in Vientiane, jointly organized by ERIA, Lao Journalists’ Association and Vientiane Times.

The deputy minister said Laos produces almost 100% its domestic electricity supply from hydropower. In 2015, its household electrification was 89% and would rise to 95% by 2020.

“Combining electricty production from large hydropower projects for domestic use and export and interconnection with neighboring countries has proven to be cost-effective for Laos,” he said, adding that the country also projects to export up tp 10,000 megawatt to Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar by 2020 or about 50,000 GWh annually, which would also contribute to energy security in the region.

“Energy security tops the energy policy [in Laos], aimed at improving energy diversification, energy conservation programs and intensifying efforts to identify and develop energy resources,” Viraponh added.

However, another challenge is ensuring affordable supplies to support continued economic growth and development in the country, which aims to gain eligibility to graduate from least developing countries status by 2020 and to achieve the ranking as an upper-middle-income country by 2030.

Landlocked Laos has a population of 6.49 million people and from 2011 to 2015, its gross domestic product has grown on average of 7.4% while its electricity demand has increased by more than 14%, thus making energy security fundamental for its national development because energy supports and sustains economic and industrial activities.

ERIA president Professor Hidetoshi Nishimura said ERIA has completed a long-term development vision for Laos industrial development strategies 2016 – 2030.

“In cooperation with Lao PDR government and research institute, Lao PDR will shift from landlocked country to land-linked country,” Professor Nishimura said.

With all Asean member states, except for Brunei, being net importers of energy, the regional bloc faced a serious challenge in energy security, which is essential to boost its integrated economy and regional development.

The bloc’s current primary demand for energy is about 550 Mtoe or million ton of oil equivalent, which supplies its 600 million population across the 10 member states and generates 1,166 Mt of energy-related Co2 emmission. According to various data from Asian Development Bank, International Energy Agency and ERIA, the primary energy demand in the region by 2035 would increase to 1,004 Mtoe, generate 2,300 C02 emmission used by 736 million population.

The Asean 2016 chair Laos also noted that common energy challenge in the region include improving energy security and sustainability of energy use as well as reducing economic costs, though energy policies in the ten member states vary as they reflect the differences in political direction, economic development and natural resources assets.

Energy is rated as the number one out of the top 10 problems that Asia would face over the next 50 years, followed by water, food, environment and poverty, said Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, a senior energy economist at ERIA.

He noted that the success of development in the region would also rely on the rate of electricity consumption.

“Human development index and energy consumption are linked. Countries with high human development index have higher energy consumption compared to those who don’t,” Anbumozhi said, adding that Singapore and Brunei, whose energy consumption are almost 8,000 kWh per capita, were the two Asean countries that belong in the same group of countries that have high energy consumption and human development index, such as Japan, Australia and the United States.

“Energy security concerns grow in Asean under growing demand circumstances,” he said.

The concerns grow as Asean’s energy supplies from Middle Eastern countries are experiencing setbacks and with the changing dynamics of emerging Asia as China, Japan, Korea slow down while India, Asean and Central Asia take over as the engines of global energy demand growth.

To ensure its energy supplies, Asean energy development would be propelled by geopolitical and market uncertainties, while energy efficiency and renewable energy could play a role in the region’s energy security and setting the low-carbon green growth agenda.

Anbumozhi said the region needed to look to an energy transition in the future when its pyramid of energy use, which currently places fossil fuel for the most part at the base and less use of renewable and energy efficiency at the apex, would be reversed to a much-wider use of renewable and energy efficiency and eventually, an end to the use of fossil fuel.

“Far-sighted government policies, innovative financing and regional cooperation are essential to steer the Asean’s development on to a safer course,” Anbumozhi said.

Asean’s continued development and integration however is somewhat overshadowed by the aftermath of Britain’s exit from the European Union (EU), raising concerns whether the same thing could happen in Asean.

But economics and international affairs pundits dismissed the notion, saying that Asean has a different model of regional integration compared to the EU. Most notably, EU member states have to relinquish some sovereignty such as writing their own laws, which would be written in Brussels and accommodate regional concerns.

Dr. Victor Sumsky, the director of Asean Centre at the Russian Foreign Ministry’s Moscow State Institute of International Relations said that EU was overly bureaucratized. It provides many lessons for Asean of what not do in terms of bureaucratization and institutionalization.

“It is not foreseeable right now of a Brexit replica in Asean,” he added.

ERIA senior economist Dr. Ponciano Intal said compared to the EU, Asean is in a different stage of development and the region would have a greater potential by integrating.

Asean secretary-general Le Luong Minh said the impact might be on the negotiations for free trade agreement between the two blocs, which started in 2007 but was halted in 2009 to make way for EU to forge trade agreements bilaterally with individual Asean member states first.

Moreover, Asean doesn’t have the migration issue and free movement of people that EU face. Non-Asean citizens are not that free to travel within the region because Asean doesn’t have a single visa policy like the EU’s Schengen visa.

“For us, it is a wake up call. We have to promote efforts to narrow development gap and for member states to strike the balance between short-term national interests with long-term regional interests,” the secretary-general said.

Immigration authorities checking reports energy minister is a US citizen

Indonesian immigration authorities are investigating allegations that newly appointed Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Arcandra Tahar is a US citizen.  Continue reading “Immigration authorities checking reports energy minister is a US citizen”

Coal downturn leaves behind deaths, environmental ruin

For nearly two years Rahmawati has been seeking justice for her 10-year-old son, Muhammad Raihan, who drowned in a water-filled coal mine pit in Indonesia’s East Kalimantan province. Continue reading “Coal downturn leaves behind deaths, environmental ruin”

Zero waste, clean environments with domestic biogas

Sanur, Bali- Wearing a pair of knee-high boots, Ni Wayan Karini strode past an expanse of colorful fields of flowers taller than an average adult. She later stirred remaining of chicken boiled in two large pots for feeding pigs in her backyard farm in Sanur area of Bali province.

“We usually have at least 50 pigs in our pigsty, but because we just sold some, the sty is a bit empty,” she said.

“Once every three days I get garbage from neighbors. They don’t know what to do with their garbage. Today I got this chicken, sometimes I get cookies, rice, fish, many things,” said the 50-year-old woman who manages the farm only with her husband.

“We sometimes get thrown sushi. Our pigs eat sushi, although we rarely eat sushi,” she said laughing heartily.

Once in a while Karini wiped the sweat from her pretty face. With her husband, Nyoman Brandi, she cleans the pigsty and keeps the fruit and flower gardens. The entire backyard and pigsty were very clean, and did not stink at all, unlike some other pig farms.

They achieved this after they built a 6-cubic-meter domestic biogas (BIRU) digester in 2010, which functions to transform animal and human waste and other organic materials into biogas that is useful for domestic scale of cooking gas consumption and energy for lighting.

BIRU digester technology is a fixed-dome adapted from a system used in other countries like Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, Nepal and Vietnam.

The fixed-dome digester is made of bricks and concrete buried under the ground. The system has been proven to be safe for the environment and function as a source of clean energy.

Initiated in May 2009 with the support from the Netherlands Embassy, Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme (IDBP) or BIRU has built more than 15,000 biogas digesters in 10 provinces in Indonesia by June 2015 to promote modern and sustainable renewable energy for the Indonesian society.

Nyoman Brandi, a retired civil servant from the environmental office, had been familiar with biogas concept because in Bali there were many pig farms.

“Pig farms are the enemy of Bali’s environment, that’s why I wanted to change that image,” he said.

“Before, we got complaints from neighbors because the pigsty and the pig dung stank, but after we planted the biogas digester, the problem was solved,” he said.

The neighbors who previously protested the farm now used Karini and Brandi as their “garbage dump.” Now, when the couple opened their gate in the morning, they would find garbage from the neighbors.

“They know we can use the garbage. They know that their garbage is useful for our pig farm,” Nyoman said.

The biogas residue or the bio-slurry from the digester is also useful for the neighborhood. The couple uses the bio-slurry as organic fertilizer for their flower and fruit plants in their fields.

They got double advantage because their plants grow healthily.

In line with the Hindu tradition the couple follows, they use the fruits and flowers from their own gardens for daily offerings. Because they had good yields, they could even sell some flowers to their neighbors.

“The fresh flowers fetch Rp 3,000 per stalk,” Karini said.

Good sanitation had also become the major motivator for Joko Winarno, an owner of a tofu factory “Sri Rejeki” in Sidoarjo district, Sragen in Central Java, to use biogas.

The home industry he managed with his wife employed 10 people and used 200 kilograms of soy beans per day to produce tofu that would distribute to nearby markets.

tofu industry
Joko Winarno, owner of the tofu factory “Sri Rejeki” in Sidoarjo district, Sragen in Central Java, take advantage of domestic biogas to boost his business as well as reducing pollution in his neighborhood, Photo: Sonang Elyas/BIRU

“Before we had biogas, we threw liquid waste from our tofu industry into the river. It stank a lot, and we felt bad to the environment,” Joko said.

His concern for the stinking liquid waste prompted Joko to learn how to manage his waste. In 2014 he met a construction worker who introduced him to the domestic biogas, which could help him manage the waste.

Joko Winarno finally found the solution to his problem. He then built a big digester at once, measured 12 cubic meter, because he realized that the liquid waste resulted from his tofu industry was a lot, so he uses the waste as ingredient for the domestic biogas, otherwise this liquid waste would pollutes the environment.

As expected, the result had satisfied the 47-year-old businessman very much.

“It has been a year since the last time I bought LPG for cooking in the house and for frying tofu. Most importantly, the liquid waste no longer disturbs the environment,” he said, with a clear sign of relief on his face.

“I have calculated that I can save Rp 200,000 to Rp 300,000 per month by replacing LPG with biogas,” Joko said.

The waste problem in farms or industry is basically the same: they emit bad smell to the house and the neighborhood. After installing biogas digester, the waste problem is not only solved but it also gives benefits to the users.



Families go against all odds to make lives better

Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)-  Bernadus Missa is not a person who gives up easily.  Continue reading “Families go against all odds to make lives better”